When they were in power, television and music were banned. But the Taliban do not agree on how to rule Afghanistan.
– Christian Harbwigen, a researcher in the Department of Peace Research (PRIO), says there is no doubt that Viji will receive a strict justice system under the Taliban.
But the question is how strict and what forces will win in the Taliban: those who want a tougher stronghold or are more willing to negotiate.
What is happening now is that suddenly “hardliners” are in Kabul. The foot soldiers are there. They and others must now agree on how to manage Kabul. From today they have that responsibility, says R. Arn Strand, researcher at the Michelson Institute.
From the beginning to the present administration
Many have been involved in today’s administration from the beginning. The Taliban appeared in the north of the country in the 1990s, in chaos and civil war after the withdrawal of the Soviet Union in 1989.
In 1994, Afghanistan was in a civil war. Within Kabul there was pure war and very ugly scenes, with different groups fighting each other and violent abuses against civilians. This is a horrible situation, as well as worse outside of Kabul, where various warriors have dominated certain parts of the country and ruled their own small kingdom, Harbwigan pointed out.
– In that situation, they were seen as rescuers by many, says Harvwigen.
The Taliban captured Kabul in 1996 and Mohammed Omar became their first “one-eyed” leader. Women were required to wear a burqa, men were required to grow beards, and television, music, and cinema were banned.
Following Al-Qaeda’s terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the hunt for Taliban leadership began.
Mulla Omar was confirmed dead in 2015. The new leader, Mulla Mansour, was killed in a US drone strike a year ago. Then the current leader took over Hypatullah Agundsada Top:
He has been one of the Taliban since its inception in 1994. He is not one of the most important figures, but he has a heavy background as a religious writer. A really heavier background than some of his predecessors in the Islamic context, says Harbwigan.
– He saw little world outside of Afghanistan and Pakistan. He was not a school-educated cosmopolitan. He has a limited understanding of how international diplomacy works. It’s definitely a challenge in the situation we are in now, says Harvwigen.
– How much power does the Taliban leader really have?
– He has great power, and in the end, at least formally speaking, the leader’s decisions are decisive. But Hibatullah does not have the same status as Mullah Omar, the original leader of the Taliban. So he is more dependent on compromise, says Harvwigen.
Internal traction: – Both of these are peaks
Under Hypatullah Agundsada There are many representatives.
Abdul Gani Bharat, one of the founders of the Taliban, is now chairman of the Political Commission.
– He has proven to be central and very accommodating and ready to negotiate. He has now come out with calls to be generous and content, says Harbwigan.
Sirajuddin Haqqani does not appear ready for talks:
In a reader post New York Times Last year, Haqqani wrote that they should create an Islamic organization in which all Afghans have equal rights, including the protection of women’s rights – from the right to education to the right to work.
– He represents the Haqqani network, which is closer to al-Qaeda and Pakistani intelligence than the rest of the Taliban. They have been at the forefront of the development of terrorist tactics they have used since 2003, with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. They are tough, so these two are the pinnacle, says Harbwigen.
Of course, there are many important people to mention. But after a shocking victory over the authorities, the Taliban leadership went from rebel leaders to ruling an entire country.
Ordinary street fighters now have the power to enforce a tax that is not fully determined:
– The Taliban do not agree with themselves on how to rule the country?
– Yes, there are internal discussions. The unfortunate thing is that empty victory weakens the voice of moderates, says Harvwigen of the Department of Peace Research.
– One of the questions in Afghanistan is whether hudut punishments can be used with theft, stoning and cuts for that kind of thing. The Taliban did it when they were in power and it will be exciting to see how they react to it now. They are well aware that this is also one of the things they react to most harshly. Says Harvwigen.
– They think there is little panic, they do not know what to do
Researcher Arn Strand points out that the Taliban are in a pinch: if they are too generous, they will lose support domestically. If they are too strict, they will lose support internationally. He believes how strict the Taliban regime will be, it depends on local regulations.
– Strictly local, the Taliban are strict. They are more open to things like women’s rights, including the Taliban. But now there’s a little bit of panic, and I’m sure they do not know what to do, Strand says.
After all, they capture a country in chaos:
– They have enough power to handle a common tax. It may be strict at first, but over time it will become a little softer. We have seen this before, he points out.
But the Taliban now have to create and create a governing body with nothing.
– They have a kind of shadow government, but the most important thing so far is that there are shadow governors and shadow administrations all over Afghanistan, says Harbwigan.
The question is whether the districts will have most of the existing government structures. The Taliban are only reforming the health and education system in its image, rather than creating something completely new.
– In areas where the Taliban have established themselves over the past 15 years, they have set up a shadow administration. They have appointed a Taliban governor and established a judiciary that provides services that the state administration cannot provide. This is how they become legal. Gradually, there were similar shadow administrations across the country, Harbwigen says.